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ველო ტური ალგეთის დაცულ ტერიტორიაზე Group

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Micah Veselov
Micah Veselov

STORY OF SEASONS: A Wonderful Life Switch NSP F... [BETTER]


The temporal association between lymphocyte depletion and the heightened levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF, IL-6, IL-1beta, IL-12, IL-18, IL-33, and IFN-I, points to the possibility of a cause-effect relationship.115115. Diao B, Wang C, Tan Y, Chen X, Liu Y, Ning L, et al. Reduction and functional exhaustion of T cells in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Front Immunol. 2020; 11: 827.,116116. Liu J, Li S, Liu J, Liang B, Wang X, Wang H, et al. Longitudinal characteristics of lymphocyte responses and cytokine profiles in the peripheral blood of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. EBioMedicine. 2020; 55: 102763.,119119. Wang F, Nie J, Wang H, Zhao Q, Xiong Y, Deng L, et al. Characteristics of peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration in COVID-19 pneumonia. J Infect Dis. 2020; 221: 1762-9.,120120. Wan S, Yi Q, Fan S, Lv J, Zhang X, Guo L, et al. Characteristics of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in peripheral blood of 123 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP). medRxiv [Preprint]. 2020. ,126126. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020; 395: 497-506. In fact, it has been found that pro-inflammatory cytokines can inhibit lymphopoiesis127127. Kamphuis E, Junt T, Waibler Z, Forster R, Kalinke U. Type I interferons directly regulate lymphocyte recirculation and cause transient blood lymphopenia. Blood. 2006; 108: 3253-61.,128128. Shiow LR, Rosen DB, Brdickova N, Xu Y, An J, Lanier LL, et al. CD69 acts downstream of interferon-alpha/beta to inhibit S1P1 and lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs. Nature. 2006; 440: 540-4.,129129. Kennedy DE, Knight KL. Inhibition of B-lymphopoiesis by adipocytes and IL-1-producing MDSCs. J Immunol. 2015; 195: 2666-74. and exhibit antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on lymphocytes,130130. Mehta AK, Gracias DT, Croft M. TNF activity and T cells. Cytokine. 2018; 101: 14-8.,131131. Brenner D, Krammer PH, Arnold R. Concepts of activated T cell death. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2008; 66: 52-64.,132132. Arnold R, Brenner D, Becker M, Frey CR, Krammer PH. How T lymphocytes switch between life and death. Eur J Immunol. 2006; 36: 1654-8.,133133. Liao YC, Liang WG, Chen FW, Hsu JH, Yang JJ, Chang MS. IL-19 induces production of IL-6 and TNF-a and results in cell apoptosis through TNF- a. J Immunol. 2002; 169: 4288-97.,134134. Morrow KN, Coopersmith CM, Ford ML. IL-17, IL-27, and IL-33: a novel axis linked to immunological dysfunction during sepsis. Front Immunol. 2019; 10: 1982. particularly CD8+ T cells,131131. Brenner D, Krammer PH, Arnold R. Concepts of activated T cell death. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2008; 66: 52-64.,132132. Arnold R, Brenner D, Becker M, Frey CR, Krammer PH. How T lymphocytes switch between life and death. Eur J Immunol. 2006; 36: 1654-8. the most depleted population in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Other possible factors involved in lymphocyte depletion are increased glucocorticoid,135135. Panesar NS. What caused lymphopenia in SARS and how reliable is the lymphokine status in glucocorticoid-treated patients? Med Hypotheses. 2008; 71: 298-301.,136136. Herold MJ, McPherson KG, Reichardt HM. Glucocorticoids in T cell apoptosis and function. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006; 63: 60-72. and lactic acid concentrations137137. Fischer K, Hoffmann P, Voelkl S, Meidenbauer N, Ammer J, Edinger M, et al. Inhibitory effect of tumor cell-derived lactic acid on human T cells. Blood. 2007; 109: 3812-9. that occur during infection.




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